References and Resources

The sections below consist of systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, conference abstracts, editorials, business reviews, and case reports that represent an ever-growing body of research supporting the use of M+R catheters.

Spectrum Efficacy

Peripherally inserted central catheter-associated bloodstream infection: risk factors and the role of antibiotic-impregnated catheters for prevention.
Kagan E, Salgado C, Banks A, et al.
Am J Infect Control. 2018;S0196-6553(18):30749-30751.

Are antimicrobial peripherally inserted central catheters associated with reduction in central line-associated bloodstream infection? A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Kramer RD, Rogers MA, Conte M, et al.
Am J Infect Control. 2017;45(2):108-114.

Effectiveness of minocycline and rifampin vs chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine-impregnated central venous catheters in preventing central
line-associated bloodstream infection in a high-volume academic intensive care unit: a before and after trial.
Bonne S, Mazuski JE, Sona C, et al.
J Am Coll Surg. 2015;221(3):739-747.

Long-term central venous access in pediatric patients at high risk: conventional versus antibiotic-impregnated catheters.
Baskin KM, Hunnicutt C, Beck ME, et al.
J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2014;25(3):411-418.

Novel approach using antimicrobial catheters to improve the management of central line-associated bloodstream infections in cancer patients.
Chaftari A, Kassis C, El Issa H, et al.
Cancer. 2011;117(11):2551-2558.

The clinical effectiveness of central venous catheters treated with anti-infective agents in preventing catheter-related bloodstream infections: a systematic review.
Hockenhull JC, Dwan KM, Smith GW, et al.
Crit Care Med. 2009;37(2):702-712.

A systematic review comparing the relative effectiveness of antimicrobial-coated catheters in intensive care units.
Ramritu P, Halton K, Collignon P, et al.
Am J Infect Control. 2008;36(2):104-117.

Antimicrobial central venous catheters in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Casey AL, Mermel LA, Nightingale P, et al.
Lancet Infect Dis. 2008;8(12):763-776.

Effectiveness of impregnated central venous catheters for catheter related blood stream infection: a systematic review.
Gilbert RE, Harden M.
Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2008;21(3):235-245.

Effect of chlorhexidine/silver sulfadiazine-impregnated central venous catheters in an intensive care unit with a low blood stream infection rate after implementation of an educational program: a before-after trial.
Schuerer DJ, Zack JE, Thomas J, et al.
Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2007;8(4):445-454.

Rifampicin-impregnated central venous catheters: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Falagas ME, Fragoulis K, Bliziotis IA, et al.
J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007;59(3):359-369.

Comparative in vitro efficacies and antimicrobial durabilities of novel antimicrobial central venous catheters.
Hanna H, Bahna P, Reitzel R, et al.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50(10):3283-3288.

Vancomycin-resistant organisms on a burn unit.
Still J, Law E, Friedman B, et al.
South Med J. 2001;94(8):810-812.

A comparison of two antimicrobial-impregnated central venous catheters.
Darouiche RO, Raad II, Heard SO, et al.
N Engl J Med. 1999;340(1):1-8.

The evolving technology of venous access.
Wenzel RP, Edmond MB.
N Engl J Med. 1999;340(1):48-50.

The ex vivo antimicrobial activity and colonization rate of two antimicrobial-bonded central venous catheters.
Marik PE, Abraham G, Careau P, et al.
Crit Care Med. 1999;27(6):1128-1131.

Antimicrobial durability and rare ultrastructural colonization of indwelling central catheters coated with minocycline and rifampin.
Raad I, Darouiche RO, Hachem R, et al.
Crit Care Med. 1998;26(2):219-224.

Central venous catheters coated with minocycline and rifampin for the prevention of catheter-related colonization and bloodstream infections. A randomized, double-blind trial.
Raad I, Darouiche R, Dupuis J, et al.
Ann Intern Med. 1997;127(4):267-274.

Spectrum Science

Anti-adherence activity and antimicrobial durability of anti-infective-coated catheters against multidrug-resistant bacteria.
Raad I, Reitzel R, Jiang Y, et al.
J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008;62(4):746-750.

The broad-spectrum activity and efficacy of catheters coated with minocycline and rifampin.
Raad I, Darouiche R, Hachem R, et al.
J Infect Dis. 1996;173(2):418-424.

Antibiotics and prevention of microbial colonization of catheters.
Raad I, Darouiche R, Hachem R, et al.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1995;39(11):2397-2400.

Antibiotic susceptibility of staphylococcal isolates from patients with vascular catheter-related bacteremia: potential role of the combination of minocycline and rifampin.
Darouiche RO, Raad II, Bodey GP, et al.
Int J Antimicrob Agents. 1995;6(1):31-36.

Spectrum Cost-Effectiveness

Attributable cost of catheter-associated bloodstream infections among intensive care patients in a nonteaching hospital.
Warren DK, Quadir WW, Hollenbeak CS, et al.
Crit Care Med. 2006;34(8):2084-2089.

Evidence that prevention makes cents: costs of catheter-associated bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit.
Cosgrove SE.
Crit Care Med. 2006;34(8):2243-2244.

Antibiotic-impregnated catheters associated with significant decrease in nosocomial and multidrug-resistant bacteremias in critically ill patients.
Hanna HA, Raad II, Hackett B, et al.
Chest. 2003;124(3):1030-1038.

New choices for central venous catheters: potential financial implications.
Shorr AF, Humphreys CW, Helman DL.
Chest. 2003;124(1):275-284.

Which antimicrobial impregnated central venous catheter should we use? Modeling the costs and outcomes of antimicrobial catheter use.
Marciante KD, Veenstra DL, Lipsky BA, et al.
Am J Infect Control. 2003;31(1):1-8.

Making health care safer: a critical analysis of patient safety practices.
Shojania KG, Duncan BW, McDonald KM, et al.
Evid Rep Technol Assess (Summ). 2001;(43):i-x, 1–668.

Spectrum and Antibiotic Resistance

Antibiotic-impregnated central venous catheters do not change antibiotic resistance patterns.
Turnbull IR, Buckman SA, Horn CB, et al.
Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2018;19(1):40–47.

Clinical effectiveness and risk of emerging resistance associated with prolonged use of antibiotic-impregnated catheters: more than 0.5 million catheter days and 7 years of clinical experience.
Ramos ER, Reitzel R, Jiang Y, et al.
Crit Care Med. 2011;39(2):245-251.

Clinical experience with minocycline and rifampin-impregnated central venous catheters in bone marrow transplantation recipients: efficacy and low risk of developing staphylococcal resistance.
Chatzinikolaou I, Hanna H, Graviss L, et al.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2003;24(12):961-963.

New technology for reducing infection and resistance in the ICU.
Crnich CJ, Maki DG.
J Crit Illness. 2002;17;48-51.

Comparison of an untreated vs. silver/chlorhexidine vs. rifampin/minocycline central venous catheter in reducing catheter-related bloodstream infections.
Brooks K, Dauenhauer S, Nelson M.
Abstract presented at: APIC 28th Annual Educational Conference and International Meeting; June 10-14, 2001; Seattle, WA.

Spectrum and Burn Patients

Five-lumen antibiotic-impregnated femoral central venous catheters in severely burned patients: an investigation of device utility and catheter-related bloodstream infection rates.
Friedman BC, Mian MAH, Mullins RF, et al.
J Burn Care Res. 2015;36(4):493-499.

The impact of antibiotic impregnated PICC lines on the incidence of bacteria in a regional burn center.
Armstrong SD, Thomas W, Neaman KC, et al.
Burns. 2013;39(4):632-635.

Incidence of catheter-associated bloodstream infection after introduction of minocycline and rifampin antimicrobial-coated catheters in a pediatric burn population.
Weber JM, Sheridan RL, Fagan S, et al.
J Burn Case Res. 2012;33(4):539-543.

Spectrum Long-Term Silicone

Comparison of antimicrobial impregnation with tunneling of long-term central venous catheters: a randomized controlled trial.
Darouiche RO, Berger DH, Khardori N, et al.
Ann Surg. 2005;242(2):193-200.