References and Resources

The sections below consist of systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, conference abstracts, editorials, business reviews, and case reports that represent an ever-growing body of research supporting the use of M+R catheters.

Spectrum Efficacy

Effectiveness of minocycline and rifampin vs chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine-impregnated central venous catheters in preventing central
line-associated bloodstream infection in a high-volume academic intensive care unit: a before and after trial.
Bonne S, Mazuski JE, Sona C, et al.
Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 2015;221(3):739-747.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26199017

Long-term central venous access in Pediatric patients at high risk: Conventional versus antibiotic-impregnated catheters.
Baskin KM, Hunnicutt C, Beck ME, et at.
Vasc Interv Radiol.. 2014;25(3):411-418.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvir.2013.11.024

Novel approach using antimicrobial catheters to improve the management of central line-associated bloodstream infections in cancer patients.
Chaftari A, Kassis C, El Issa H, et al.
Cancer. 2011;117(11):2551-2558.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cncr.25807/full

The clinical effectiveness of central venous catheters treated with anti-infective agents in preventing catheter-related bloodstream infections: a systematic review.
Hockenhull JC, Dwan KM, Smith GW, et al.
Crit Care Med. 2009;37(2):702-712.
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19114884

A systematic review comparing the relative effectiveness of antimicrobial-coated catheters in intensive care units.
Ramritu P, Halton K, Collignon P, et al.
Am J Infect Control. 2008;36(2):104-117.
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18313512

Antimicrobial central venous catheters in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Casey AL, Mermel LA, Nightingale P, et al.
Lancet Infect Dis. 2008;8(12):763-776.
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19022192

Effectiveness of impregnated central venous catheters for catheter related blood stream infection: a systematic review.
Gilbert RE, Harden M.
Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2008;21(3):235-245.
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18448967

Effect of chlorhexidine/silver sulfadiazine-impregnated central venous catheters in an intensive care unit with a low blood stream infection rate after implementation of an educational program: a before-after trial.
Schuerer DJ, Zack JE, Thomas J, et al.
Surgical Infections. 2007;8(4):445-454.
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17883361

Rifampicin-impregnated central venous catheters: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Falagas ME, Fragoulis K, Bliziotis IA, et al.
J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007;59(3):359-369.
jac.oxfordjournals.org/content/59/3/359.full

Comparative in vitro efficacies and antimicrobial durabilities of novel antimicrobial central venous catheters.
Hanna H, Bahna P, Reitzel R, et al.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50(10):3283-3288.
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1610097

Vancomycin-resistant organisms on a burn unit.
Still J, Law E, Friedman B, et al.
Southern Medical Journal. 2001;94(8):810-812.
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11549193

A comparison of two antimicrobial-impregnated central venous catheters.
Darouiche RO, Raad II, Heard SO, et al.
N Engl J Med. 1999;340(1):1-8.
nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM199901073400101

The evolving technology of venous access.
Wenzel RP, Edmund MB.
N Engl J Med. 1999;340(1):48-50.
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9878645

The ex vivo antimicrobial activity and colonization rate of two antimicrobial-bonded central venous catheters.
Marik PE, Abraham G, Careau P, et al.
Crit Care Med. 1999;27(6):1128-1131.
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10397217

Antimicrobial durability and rare ultrastructural colonization of indwelling central catheters coated with minocycline and rifampin.
Raad I, Darouiche RO, Hachem R, et al.
Crit Care Med. 1998;26(2):219-224.
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9468157

Central venous catheters coated with minocycline and rifampin for the prevention of catheter-related colonization and bloodstream infections. A randomized, double-blind trial.
Raad I, Darouiche R, Dupuis J, et al.
Ann Intern Med. 1997;127(4):267-274.
annals.org/article.aspx?articleid=710759

Spectrum Science

Anti-adherence activity and antimicrobial durability of anti-infective-coated catheters against multidrug-resistant bacteria.
Raad I, Reitzel R, Jiang Y, et al.
J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008;62(4):746-750.
jac.oxfordjournals.org/content/62/4/746

The broad-spectrum activity and efficacy of catheters coated with minocycline and rifampin.
Raad I, Darouiche R, Hachem R, et al.
J Infect Dis. 1996;173(2):418-424.
jstor.org/stable/30126138

Antibiotics and prevention of microbial colonization of catheters.
Raad I, Darouiche R, Hachem R, et al.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1995;39(11):2397-2400.
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC162954

Antibiotic susceptibility of staphylococcal isolates from patients with vascular catheter-related bacteremia: potential role of the combination of minocycline and rifampin.
Darouiche RO, Raad II, Bodey GP, et al.
Int J Antimicrob Agents. 1995;6(1):31-36.
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18611682

Spectrum Cost Effectivness

Attributable cost of catheter-associated bloodstream infections among intensive care patients in a nonteaching hospital.
Warren DK, Quadir WW, Hollenbeak CS, et al.
Crit Care Med. 2006;34(8):2084-2089.
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16763511

Evidence that prevention makes cents: costs of catheter-associated bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit.
Cosgrove SE.
Crit Care Med. 2006;34(8):2243-2244.
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16883193

Antibiotic-impregnated catheters associated with significant decrease in nosocomial and multidrug-resistant bacteremias in critically ill patients.
Hanna HA, Raad II, Hackett B, et al.
Chest. 2003;124(3):1030-1038.
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12970034

New choices for central venous catheters: potential financial implications.
Shorr AF, Humphreys CW, Helman DL.
Chest. 2003;124(1):275-284.
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12853534

Which antimicrobial impregnated central venous catheter should we use? Modeling the costs and outcomes of antimicrobial catheter use.
Marciante KD, Veenstra DL, Lipsky BA, et al.
Am J Infect Control. 2003;31(1):1-8.
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12548250

Making health care safer: a critical analysis of patient safety practices.
Shojania KG, Duncan BW, McDonald KM, et al.
Evid Rep Technol Assess (Sum). 2001;(43):1-12.
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11510252

Spectrum and Antibiotic Resistance

Clinical effectiveness and risk of emerging resistance associated with prolonged use of antibiotic-impregnated catheters: more than 0.5 million catheter days and 7 years of clinical experience.
Ramos ER, Reitzel R, Jiang Y, et al.
Crit Care Med. 2011;39(2):245-251.
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21057308

Clinical experience with minocycline and rifampin-impregnated central venous catheters in bone marrow transplantation recipients: efficacy and low risk of developing staphylococcal resistance.
Chatzinikolaou I, Hanna H, Graviss L, et al.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2003;24(12):961-963.
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14700414

New technology for reducing infection and resistance in the ICU.
Crnich CJ, Maki DG.
J Crit Illn. 2002;17;48-51.
business.highbeam.com/4312/article-1G1-83373440/new-technology-reducing-infection-and-resistance-icu

Comparison of an untreated vs. silver/chlorhexidine vs. rifampin/minocycline central venous catheter in reducing catheter-related bloodstream infections.
Brooks K, Dauenhauer S, Nelson M.
Abstract presented at: APIC 28th Annual Educational Conference and International Meeting; June 10-14, 2001; Seattle, WA.

Spectrum and Burn Patients

Five-lumen antibiotic-impregnated femoral central venous catheters in severely burned patients: an investigation of device utility and catheter-related bloodstream infection rates.
Friedman BC, Mohammad AHM, Mullins RF, et al.
J Burn Care Res. 2015;36(4):493-499.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25407386

The impact of antibiotic impregnated PICC lines on the incidence of bacteria in a regional burn center.
Armstrong D, Thomas W, Neaman KC, et al.
Burns. 2013;39(4):632-635.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305417912002811

Incidence of catheter-associated bloodstream infection after introduction of minocycline and rifampin antimicrobial-coated catheters in a pediatric burn population.
Weber JM, Sheridan RL, Fagan S, et al.
J Burn Case Res. 2012;33(4):539-543.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22210071

Spectrum Long-Term Silicone

Comparison of antimicrobial impregnation with tunneling of long-term central venous catheters: a randomized controlled trial.
Darouiche RO, Berger DH, Khardori N, et al.
Ann Surg. 2005;242(2):193-200.
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1357724/

Long-term silicone central venous catheters impregnated with minocycline and rifampin decrease rates of catheter-related bloodstream infection in cancer patients: a prospective randomized clinical trial.
Hanna H, Benjamin R, Chatzinikolaou I, et al.
J Clin Oncol. 2004;22(15):3163-3171.
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15284269